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All Research

Botanical medicines Cryptolepsis sanguinolenta, Artemisia annua, Scutellaria baicalensis, Polygonum cuspidatum, and Alchornea cordifolia demonstrate inhibitory activity against Babesia duncani.
March 25, 2021
Published in: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. Doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2021.624645. 08 March 2021. http://globallymealliance.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/Herbs-for-Babesia-Duncani2.pdf
Borrelia burgdorferi-Induced Changes in the Class II Self-Immunopeptidome Displayed on HLA-DR Molecules Expressed by Dendritic Cells
March 1, 2021
Published in: Front Med (Lausanne) Sep 16;7:568. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2020.00568. eCollection 2020. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33043033/
Evaluation of Disulfiram Drug Combinations and Identification of Other More Effective Combinations against Stationary Phase Borrelia burgdorferi
March 1, 2021
Published in: Antibiotics Aug 26;9(9):542. doi: 10.3390/antibiotics9090542 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32858987/
Host-specific functional compartmentalization within the oligopeptide transporter during the Borrelia burgdorferi enzootic cycle
March 1, 2021
Published in: PLos Pathogens, 2021 Jan 11;17(1):e1009180. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1009180. eCollection 2021 Jan https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33428666/
Borrelia miyamotoi Serology in a Clinical Population With Persistent Symptoms and Suspected Tick-Borne Illness
March 1, 2021
Published in: Front Med (Lausanne). 2020; 7: 567350. Published online 2020 Oct 27. doi:  10.3389/fmed.2020.567350 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33195313/
Pediatric Lyme Disease Biobank, United States, 2015–2020
March 1, 2021
Published in: Emerg Infect Dis. 2020 Dec; 26(12): 3099–3101. doi:  10.3201/eid2612.200920 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33219811/
Interactions Between Ticks and Lyme Disease Spirochetes.
March 1, 2021
Published in: Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2020 Dec 8;42:113-144. doi: 10.21775/cimb.042.113. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33289683/
Posttreatment Symptoms in Lyme Borreliosis
February 28, 2020
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common vector-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere, and its incidence is on the rise. With 5%–20% of Lyme patients continuing to suffer from symptoms of Lyme post...
Two-Tier Lyme Disease Serology Test Results Can Vary According to the Specific First-Tier Test Used
January 28, 2020
Variability in 2-tier Lyme disease test results according to the specific first-tier enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in children has not been examined rigorously. In this study, investigators paired results ...
A minority of children diagnosed with Lyme disease recall a preceding tick bite
January 28, 2020
Of 1770 children undergoing emergency department evaluation for Lyme disease, 362 (20.5%) children had Lyme disease. Of those with an available tick bite history, only a minority of those with Lyme di...
Evaluation of the Modified Two-Tiered Testing Method for Diagnosis of Lyme Disease in Children
January 28, 2020
Conventional two-tiered testing (CTTT) for Lyme disease includes a first-tier enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a supplemental immunoblot, and modified two-tiered testing (MTTT) relies on two diffe...
The Lyme Disease Polymerase Chain Reaction Test Has Low Sensitivity
January 28, 2020
The Lyme PCR is a direct detection test, but has not been rigorously evaluated in children undergoing evaluation for acute Lyme disease.
Diagnostic Performance of C6 Enzyme Immunoassay for Lyme Arthritis
January 28, 2020
In Lyme disease endemic areas, initial management of children with arthritis can be challenging because diagnostic tests take several days to return results, leading to potentially unnecessary invasiv...
The Long-Term Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi Antigens and DNA in the Tissues of a Patient with Lyme Disease
January 22, 2020
Whether Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, can persist for long periods in the human body has been a controversial question. The objective of this study was to see if we could ...
Lymphatic Migration of Immune Cells
January 22, 2020
Lymphatic vessels collect interstitial fluid that has extravasated from blood vessels and return it to the circulatory system. Another important function of the lymphatic network is to facilitate immu...
The General Symptom Questionnaire-30 (GSQ-30): A Brief Measure of Multi-System Symptom Burden in Lyme Disease
January 22, 2020
The multi-system symptoms accompanying acute and post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome pose a challenge for time-limited assessment. The General Symptom Questionnaire (GSQ-30) was developed to fill the...
The Functional and Molecular Effects of Doxycycline Treatment on Borrelia burgdorferi Phenotype
January 22, 2020
Recent studies have shown that Borrelia burgdorferi can form antibiotic-tolerant persisters in the presence of microbiostatic drugs such as doxycycline. Precisely how this occurs is yet unknown. The g...
DksA Controls the Response of the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi to Starvation
January 22, 2020
The pathogenic spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi senses and responds to changes in the environment, including changes in nutrient availability, throughout its enzootic cycle in Ixodes ticks and vertebra...
Estimation of cumulative number of post-treatment Lyme disease cases in the US, 2016 and 2020
January 17, 2020
Joint study conducted by scientists at Global Lyme Alliance (GLA) and Brown University estimates that two million people in the United States could suffer profound disability from post-treatment Lyme ...
Borrelia burgdorferi bbk13 Is Critical for Spirochete Population Expansion in the Skin during Early Infection
January 16, 2020
Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) enters the human body via the bite of an infected Ixodes tick. Lyme disease symptoms arise from the dissemination of Bb from the initial bite site to the distal tissues such ...
The RpoS Gatekeeper in Borrelia burgdorferi: An Invariant Regulatory Scheme That Promotes Spirochete Persistence in Reservoir Hosts and Niche Diversity
January 16, 2020
This team, based at University of Connecticut, studied genes controlled by the RpoS pathway, the regulatory system that facilitates transmission and mammalian infection by Borrelia burgdorferi. They w...
Genomes, expression profiles, and diversity of mitochondria of the White-footed Deermouse Peromyscus leucopus, reservoir of Lyme disease and other zoonoses
December 6, 2019
Dr. Alan Barbour and his team have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA from wild white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus. These mice are the natural host for Lyme and other tickborne bacteria, and serve as ...
Stationary Phase Persister/Biofilm Microcolony of Borrelia burgdorferi Causes More Severe Disease in a Mouse Model of Lyme Arthritis: Implications for Understanding Persistence, Post-Treatment Lyme Di
April 2, 2019
Although most patients with Lyme disease can be cured with a 2-4 week antibiotic therapy, about 10-20% of patients continue to suffer prolonged persistent symptoms, a condition called post-treatment L...
Identification of Essential Oils with Strong Activity against Stationary Phase Borrelia burgdorferi
February 16, 2019
Persister forms of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, are dormant or slow-growing, and tolerant of antibiotic treatment. It’s not clear yet whether persister bacteria, immun...
Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation Among Symptomatic Patients With a History of Lyme Disease vs Two Comparison Groups
February 19, 2018
According to the study, depression has been reported in 8 – 45% of patients with post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS), but little was known about suicidal tendencies in these patients. The ext...
Borrelia burgdorferi adhere to blood vessels in the dura mater and are associated with increased meningeal T cells during murine disseminated borreliosis
February 19, 2018
A mouse model of neurological Lyme disease would be helpful in understanding how patients develop symptoms and how to treat them. Until now, laboratory mice have not developed neuroborreliosis, which ...
Identifying vancomycin as an effective antibiotic for killing Borrelia burgdorferi
February 19, 2018
The persistence of symptoms in some Lyme disease patients treated with antibiotics has never been conclusively explained. This is known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). It is possible ...
Antimicrobial action of calprotectin that does not involve metal withholding.
February 16, 2018
Heavy metals like iron, copper, manganese and zinc can be toxic in large amounts. But in low concentrations, they are essential micronutrients for humans as well as bacteria. As part of the defense ag...
Activity of sulfa drugs and their combinations against stationary phase B. burgdorferi in vitro
February 19, 2017
About 10-20% of Lyme disease patients treated with antibiotics continue to suffer debilitating symptoms, known as post-treatment Lyme disease. It is not understood whether this is due to an inappropri...
Borrelia burgdorferi Manipulates Innate and Adaptive Immunity to Establish Persistence in Rodent Reservoir Hosts
February 19, 2017
A review by Tracy and Baumgarth illustrates the complexity of Borrelia interactions with the immune system. In a masterful, thorough discussion, the authors outline current thinking of how the family ...
Epitope-Specific Evolution of Human B Cell Responses to Borrelia burgdorferi VlsE Protein from Early to Late Stages of Lyme Disease
February 19, 2016
Lyme disease patients make antibodies that recognize Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacteria that cause illness. When the disease progresses from early to late stages, these antibodies may change. A protei...
Eradication of Biofilm-Like Microcolony Structures of Borrelia burgdorferi by Daunomycin and Daptomycin but not Mitomycin C in Combination with Doxycycline and Cefuroxime
February 19, 2016
The persistence of symptoms in Lyme patients treated with antibiotics may be due to the bacteria becoming tolerant to drugs. In lab culture, persistent Lyme bacteria grown into biofilm form were expos...
Longitudinal Transcriptome Analysis Reveals a Sustained Differential Gene Expression Signature in Patients Treated for Acute Lyme Disease
February 19, 2016
The genes that are expressed in sick people differ from those who are healthy. Using advanced sequencing techniques, these researchers found that immune cells in the blood of people with Lyme disease ...
A drug combination screen identifies drugs active against amoxicillin-induced round bodies of in vitro Borrelia burgdorferi persisters from an FDA drug library
February 19, 2016
In lab culture, Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease, can survive amoxicillin treatment by transforming into a round-body form. Such round bodies persist in a slowly-growing st...
CCL19 as a Chemokine Risk Factor for Post Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study
February 19, 2016
An estimated 10-20% of Lyme disease patients who are treated with antibiotics continue to suffer persisting symptoms 6 to 12 months later. This is known as post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome, becaus...
Expression of C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A in early to late manifestations of Lyme Disease
February 19, 2016
The human immune response to invasive microbes consists of two major arms: the innate and the adaptive response. The innate response occurs rapidly after infection, when the host tries to contain or i...
Ceftriaxone pulse dosing fails to eradicate biofilm-like microcolony B. burgdorferi persisters which are sterilized by daptomycin/doxycycline/cefuroxime drug combination without pulse dosing
February 19, 2016
At least 10% of patients treated with antibiotic therapy for Lyme disease continue to suffer persisting symptoms. The reason for this is unknown, but one suspect is the continued survival of persistin...
γδ T Cells and dendritic cells in refractory Lyme arthritis
February 19, 2015
This is a review about the function of γδT cells, a specialized subset of T cells that are important in coordinating the immune response when it transitions from the innate, or immediate response, to ...
Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, forms drug-tolerant persister cells
February 19, 2015
Persisting bacteria survive antibiotic treatment in lab culture. Here, the authors showed that antibiotics killed most of lab-grown B. burgdorferi, with a small surviving population that tolerated dru...
Association of immune response to endothelial cell growth factor with early disseminated and late manifestations of Lyme disease but not posttreatment Lyme disease syndrome
February 19, 2015
The persistence of symptoms in patients treated for Lyme disease remains unexplained. One possible reason could be immune system dysfunction, including antibodies that react against the patient. To st...
Drug combinations against Borrelia burgdorferi persisters in vitro: eradication achieved by using daptomycin, cefoperazone and doxycycline
February 19, 2015
The persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in the form of drug-tolerant bacteria may be one reason why some Lyme disease patients may continue to suffer symptoms despite antibiotic therapy. The authors d...
Biofilm formation by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato
February 19, 2015
The authors studied whether B. afzelii and B. garinii, two bacteria associated with Lyme disease in Europe, are capable of growing as biofilms in lab culture. Using chemical stains and microscopy, the...
Anti-neural antibody response in patients with post-treatment Lyme disease symptoms versus those with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome
February 19, 2015
Patients with persisting Lyme symptoms were previously found to have higher and more frequent anti-neural antibodies compared to people who were healthy or who had recovered from Lyme disease. Patient...
Persister mechanisms in Borrelia burgdorferi: implications for improved intervention
February 19, 2015
Lyme disease is caused by the bacteria called Borrelia burgdorferi. In lab cultures of B. burgdorferi that are treated with antibiotics, most are killed. However, some become persister bacteria that s...
Development of a Multiantigen Panel for Improved Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Infection in Early Lyme Disease
February 19, 2015
The current blood test for Lyme disease has low accuracy. In this study, the authors designed and tested a new blood test that is more accurate. They used portions of proteins, called peptides, from B...
Persisters, persistent infections and the Yin–Yang model
February 19, 2014
In this review, Dr. Zhang discusses the differences between B. burgdorferi persister and growing cells, and proposes a model for bacterial transition between the two states, with the balance tipped de...
Serum inflammatory mediator as markers of human Lyme disease activity
February 19, 2014
The authors compared the blood of patients suffering more severe symptoms of Lyme disease against those with less. They found that the pattern of chemokines, which are chemical messengers produced by ...
Identification of novel anti-persister activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA-approved drug library
February 19, 2014
A library of drug compounds that has already been approved by the FDA was tested for efficacy against persister forms of Borrelia burgdorferi that were grown in lab culture. They identified daptomycin...
A comparison of Lyme disease serologic test results from 4 laboratories in patients with persistent symptoms after antibiotic treatment.
February 19, 2014
Diagnosis of Lyme disease in late-stage patients is often erroneous. Fallon and colleagues compared Lyme disease test results from four different testing labs, using blood samples from previously diag...
An optimized SYBR Green I/PI assay for rapid viability assessment and antibiotic susceptibility testing for Borrelia burgdorferi
February 19, 2014
The authors analyzed various methods to efficiently and accurately count live and dead Borrelia burgdorferi in lab culture. This is important for calculating the efficacy of antibiotics in the killing...
Post-treatment lyme syndrome and central sensitization. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci
February 19, 2013
A significant subset of patients treated for Lyme disease continue to have symptoms that persist for months or years. These may include pain, fatigue and neurocognitive problems, and collectively has ...
Increased IFN-α activity and differential antibody response in patients with a history of Lyme disease and persistent cognitive deficits
February 19, 2013
Some patients treated for Lyme disease continue to suffer neurological symptoms. In these patients compared to healthy controls, there was increased interferon-α (IFNα) activity observed in the blood....
Development of a mitochondrial 12S rDNA analysis for distinguishing Sciuridae species with potential to transmit Ehrlichia and Borrelia species to feeding Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae)
February 19, 2012
The authors used a new DNA identification technique to observe that Lone Star ticks in Missouri harbor DNA from both pathogenic bacteria (Ehrlichia and Borrelia) as well as from the species of squirre...
Epitope mapping of antibodies to VlsE protein of Borrelia burgdorferi in post-Lyme disease syndrome.
February 19, 2011
The immune response to B. burgdorferi infection includes the production of antibodies that recognize bacterial surface proteins, one of which is called VlsE. Proteins form complex three-dimensional sh...
Distinct cerebrospinal fluid proteomes differentiate post-treatment Lyme disease from chronic fatigue syndrome
February 19, 2011
Chronic fatigue syndrome patients and post-treatment Lyme disease patients share some similar neurological symptoms. This study showed that the protein profiles in cerebrospinal fluid from the two gro...
TLR-mediated B cell activation results in ectopic CLIP expression that promotes B cell-dependent inflammation.
February 19, 2010
In this article, the authors used a mouse model to study B cells, which when activated, produce antibodies and release inflammatory cytokines, or chemical messengers. They found that a protein called ...